The Leipzig RSO gave its first concert on January 6, 1923. It was then known as the Leipzig Symphony Orchestra and consisted of just 44 musicians. Its first music director was Alfred Szendrai, who served from 1924 to 1931. The orchestra gave its first broadcast concert under Szendrai's baton on November 23, 1924. Three conductors — Carl Schuricht (1931-1933), Hans Weisbach (1934-1939), and Reinhold Merten (1939-1940) — led the orchestra until a four-year cessation was imposed in 1941 because of the war.
The Leipzig RSO resumed concertizing in 1945, with only 12 members returning from the 1941 ensemble. The new conductor was Heinrich Schachtebeck, whose tenure ended later that year. Fritz Schroeder (1945-1946) and Gerhart Wiesenhütter (1946-48) also had short stints at the helm.
Among the orchestra's best-known conductors was Hermann Abendroth, who, with Gerhard Pflüger, led the orchestra from 1949-1956. Abendroth made a number of famous recordings with the Leipzig RSO, including acclaimed efforts of the Bruckner Eighth and Ninth symphonies.
Herbert Kegel succeeded Abendroth, serving as chief conductor for 24 years (1953-1977) and making well over 50 recordings with the ensemble, offering a variety of works from Mozart to Nono.