It wasn't long before punk rock expanded beyond just New York City, London, and Los Angeles during the mid- to late '70s, as evidenced by the emergence of the long-running Vancouver, Canada-based outfit D.O.A. They are often credited, alongside bands like Black Flag, Germs, Angry Samoans, and Bad Brains, as co-founders of the hardcore scene — their sophomore effort, Hardcore '81, even references the term. Known for their outspoken, politically charged rhetoric and deference to causes like anti-racism, environmentalism, and anti-globalization, the band has been operating since 1978, with singer/guitarist Joey Shithead Keithley serving as the group's only consistent member. Despite numerous lineup changes and shifting musical landscapes, the group has held true to its blue-collar hardcore origins during its decades-long run.
Originally formed in 1978, D.O.A. have been led from the beginning by singer/guitarist Joe Keithley (aka Joey Shithead), joined by a wide variety of other bandmates through the years (including future Black Flag/Danzig/Social Distortion drummer Chuck Biscuits), although guitarist Dave Gregg was present for most of the hijinks up until 1990. The same year as their formation, D.O.A. issued a debut EP, Disco Sucks, before following it up with a pair of full-lengths that many longtime fans consider D.O.A.'s classic recordings, 1980's Something Better Change and 1981's Hardcore '81 (a popular compilation of both releases plus early tracks reared its head in 1984 as Bloodied But Unbowed).